Pedagogy 2

Hattie identifies four important levers for
improving educational performance. These are:

3.Appropriate, specfic and challenging goals.
4.Teachers who teach in certain ways - “teachers
need to be more informed evaluators/consumers of
teaching methods.”

First item in this list is innovation.

Innovation is...
‘the constant and deliberate attempt to improve the quality of learning”.
‘Teachers who constantly question “How am I going”, who wish to verify
their methods are having impacts on student learning are the prerequisites
for excellence.’ (Hattie, 1999)

Hattie’s definition of innovation aligns very closely with Aitken’s concept of teacher inquiry.

Idiosyncratic Innovations
We all have our own idiosyncratic inquiries going on:
•Would it work better if I got Andrew to sit somewhere different?
•Would it work better if I played music while the students write?

•Would it work better if we did PE in the morning.
We are always tweaking and adjusting or programmes
and approaches.

Major School-wide Innovations
However if we are going to invest a lot of time

and energy in a major school wide innovation
we want to be fairly sure it will improve learning.

Remember Aitken
talks about ‘competent warrants’.

To make a significant change we need

to be prepared to commit ourselves to an
innovation for a reasonable period of time.

Implementation Dip
Describing the process of change Michael

Fullen talks about the ‘implementation dip’
which he considers to be part of any change
process, successful or unsuccessful.
“One of the most consistent findings about the change
process is that successful organisations experience
implementation dips as they move forward (Fullan
2001b). The implementation dip is a dip in performance
and confidence as one engages in an innovation that
requires new skills and understandings”


When we are in the dip we don’t know for
sure how things are going to turn out, but
we have to push on.

Consequently we need to look for
innovations that we have reason to be
fairly confident of.

‘Competent Warrants’

If we are going to commit to an
innovation, how can we
assure ourselves we have chosen wisely?

One option is to look at meta-analyses
which aggregate masses of research
evidence to generate some broad

There have been a number of these that

have come to the fore in recent years;
Three of the best known include
•Black & Wiliam Inside the Black Box
•Adrienne Alton-Lee The Best Evidence Syntheses – particularly
•John Hattie Influences on Student Learning

John Hattie
What Hattie does that is different to some
of the others is to add the idea of ‘effect
However their conclusions are all very
similar. They agree on where the largest
effects can be achieved.

A Caution

•Meta-analyses are better for some purposes than others.
•They aggregate together results from quite diverse areas within a field.
•If we take the use of computers as an example, the effect size is 0.31, but, if we
disaggregate this a little, we find that the effect size for computers in primary schools is 0.48.
If we disaggregated this even further and looked at how computers are used,
we might find that for certain uses of computers the effect size might be even greater.

Thorndon School Practice
From your reading of the John Hattie
paper what do you consider we
should include in the ‘yoke of our egg’?
What should be consistently committing
ourselves to school-wide as a